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Web hosting for is wholly funded by the Scottish charity Apex (altitude physiology expeditions). Most content on is donated by volunteers in support of the aims of the Apex charity. We are very grateful for additional grants to fund specific translations from Apex, and the Edinburgh Anaesthesia Festival Research Fund. does not generate any income. All of the content here was written with the sole intention of saving lives in the mountains - if you find the site useful and would like to support this aim, please make a donation to Apex.


This site has been created by the authors to educate the public further in the fields of high-altitude medicine and physiology. The website is also the home of the International HAPE Database, a confidential record of individuals who have previously experienced high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPE). If you have experienced this disorder, please visit the database. is written and run by qualified doctors and all health information sent to the site administrators is held confidentially. E-mail addresses, names, and medical details of correspondents with this site will not be shared with any other organisation. does not display any advertisements and does not receive funding from advertising.

The website is designed for educational purposes only and is not intended to serve as medical advice. The information provided on this site should not be used for diagnosing or treating a health problem or disease. It is not a substitute for professional care. If you have or suspect you may have a health problem, you should not delay consulting your doctor.

Many of the links on this website are maintained by other organisations and as such, we cannot be held responsible for their content.

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